Interim results from a phase 1B/2A clinical trial conducted by the Wits Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytical (VIDA) research unit showed that the AstraZeneca vaccine conferred COVID protection in people living with HIV.
The findings, published in Lancet HIV, show that the AstraZeneca COIVD vaccine is likely to work as well in people living with HIV compared with people who are HIV negative.
These interim findings are vital for informing the clinical management of people with HIV during the COVID pandemic.
In general, clinical trials which evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of COVID vaccines in people living with HIV are limited, and in Africa they are virtually non-existent. This is despite the overwhelming prevalence of HIV infection in Africa, especially South Africa .
“We searched PubMed for peer-reviewed articles published between 1 January 2019 and 29 June 2021, using the terms ‘safety’ and ‘Covid-19’ and ‘vaccine’, but we did not find any reports that evaluated safety and immunogenicity of COVID vaccines in this population,” said Shabir Madhi, Professor of Vaccinology and Director of Wits VIDA, which led the first South African trial for a COVID vaccine in June 2020.
Compared to the general population, people living with HIV have an increased risk of infectious diseases and have a greater mortality risk when hospitalised with severe COVID.
In addition, compared with HIV-negative individuals, people with HIV are at greater risk for infectious diseases, such as influenza, including during antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Risk factors for severe COVID in people with HIV include more advanced stage of HIV/AIDS, the HIV-1 infection not being virally suppressed, and CD4 counts below 500 cells per microlitre.
The study was an interim analysis of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1B/2A trial. In 2020, the trial enrolled 104 people living with HIV were enrolled in the trial, HIV-negative people. Eligibility criteria for people with HIV included being on ART for at least three months, with a plasma HIV viral load of less than 1000 copies per microlitre.
The HIV study was a unique addition to the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine clinical trial, and aimed to assess safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in people with HIV and HIV-negative people in South Africa. The primary endpoint in all participants regardless of HIV status was the safety, tolerability, and reactogenicity profile of the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine.
Reactogenicity refers to a subset of reactions that occur soon after vaccination, and are a physical manifestation of the inflammatory response to vaccination. Such symptoms include pain, redness, swelling or induration for injected vaccines, and systemic symptoms, such as fever, myalgia, headache, or rash. In clinical trials, information on expected signs and symptoms after vaccination is actively sought.
The interim findings show that the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine was well tolerated and showed favourable safety and immunogenicity in people with HIV, including heightened immunogenicity in SARS-CoV-2 baseline-seropositive participants.
Source: University of the Witwatersrand