Tag: public health

India Tests Out Drones for Medical Deliveries

Photo by Thomas Bjornstad on Unsplash

An aviation firm has carried out the first tests in India of drone deliveries at long ranges, in a step towards one day delivering medicines as well as COVID vaccines to remote areas.

India, with a population of 1.3 billion people spread across some 3.2 million square kilometres is the world’s seventh-largest country by land mass. Experts say that widespread use of drones could be a game-changer for medical services in the South Asian nation’s hard-to-reach rural areas with often poor roads and lack of healthcare infrastructure.

Drones are a cost-effective alternative to road transport in difficult terrains. They can be used in the transport of blood from the blood bank to the place of surgery and that of specimens from hard-to-reach areas to the labs in nearby towns. They can deliver essential medicines like anti-venom for snake bite and dog bite and prevent deaths.

Throttle Aerospace Systems is among 20 organisations granted permits by the government since May to conduct experimental flights beyond the current limit of 450 metres.

Two drones were tested in the southern state of Karnataka: one that can carry up to one kilogramme for 20 kilometres for nearly an hour, and another that can lift two kilogrammes for 15 kilometres.

“Medicines was the payload here and… 2.5 kilometres were covered in seven minutes and it delivered the medicines at the designated point and the drone returned,” Throttle’s co-founder, Sebastian Anto, told AFP at the test site.

This month the Indian government also invited bids from drone operators to help set up a pilot project for the delivering of medical supplies as it seeks to bolster its flagging COVID vaccination drive.

Samiran Panda,  epidemiology chief of the Indian Council of Medical Research, told The Hindu daily newspaper that the technology could help innoculate priority groups in hard-to-reach places.

“We need smart vaccination instead of mass vaccination to stem an epidemic,” Panda told the newspaper last week.

However, India lags behind many other nations when it comes to drones both in terms of their uses and the regulatory framework.Under current regulations, they have to be flown in full view, or within 450 metres, of their operators on the ground.

In Germany, it is reported that researchers are testing drone prototypes that can track down disaster victims by their screams. In Australia, drones using artificial intelligence algorithms are being used to spot crocodiles and count koalas in rugged terrain.

“Drone technology would have a huge impact in those areas where emergency medicines and vaccines could be supplied,” co-founder of lobby group the Drone Federation of India, Vipul Singh, told AFP.

“Where it takes a few hours to travel 20-30 kilometres by road, whereas a drone can actually travel that distance in 10 to 15 minutes,” said Singh, also the co-founder of Bangalore-based Aarav Unmanned Systems.

Source: Medical Xpress

Brazil COVID Deaths Pass Half a Million

Brazil’s COVID deaths passed 500 000 in Brazil, days after the US reported passing 600 000 deaths. Experts warn of a worsening outbreak amid slow vaccination and the onset of winter.

President Jair Bolsonaro refuses to back measures like social distancing even as the virus continues to take its toll. With only 11% of adults vaccinated, Brazil’s health institute Fiocruz says the situation is “critical”.

Heavy criticism has been directed at President Bolsonaro for not implementing a co-ordinated national response and for his vaccine scepticism, lockdowns and mask-wearing requirements, which he has sought to loosen.

The country has reported, on average, 70 000 cases and 2 000 deaths daily in the past week. Most new cases were among those aged 20-59, Fiocruz said, warning that the start of winter in the southern hemisphere this week could result in more infections.

Yet governors and mayors have already relaxed nonpharmaceutical interventions. Restaurants, bars and shops have reopened in many cities, while many people in the streets are not wearing face masks or following social distancing.

“People in Brazil are tired and they normalise death now,” Dr Natalia Pasternak Taschner, a microbiologist at the Question of Science Institute, told the BBC, adding that they have a long way to go.

“If we’re not successful in changing the behaviour of people and if we don’t have campaigns for mask wearing, social distancing and vaccinations coming directly from the central government we’re not going to be able to control it.”

On Saturday, protests against President Bolsonaro were held in cities across the country, with demonstrators accusing him of delaying the purchase of vaccines yet prioritising unproven treatments, such as hydroxychloroquine.

More transmissible variants of the virus have driven Brazil’s outbreak, including the one first identified in the Amazon region which is now known as Gamma. Occupancy rate for intensive care unit beds remains at or above 80% in most states, while cities struggle with vaccine supplies.

Faced with a crumbling healthcare system without the relief of lockdowns, a ‘Covid Kit‘ of ivermectin and azithromycin has been touted by the government, and which is widely prescribed. Ironically, its creator, a doctor in Mato Grosso state, died of COVID last September. In a country notorious for its excessive pill-taking, doctors are finding it difficult to recruit people into trials who have not taken ivermectin.

The Brazilian Senate is looking into President Bolsonaro’s handling of the pandemic. The opposition is accusing him of delaying vaccine orders for political reasons, as he has consistently downplayed the pandemic’s severity.

But President Bolsonaro maintains he has done all he can to buy vaccines from several countries, and insists the impacts of a lockdown would be worse than the pandemic.

The president has not commented on the 500 000 deaths although on Twitter, Health Minister Marcelo Queiroga expressed solidarity with relatives of those who had died.

Source: BBC News

Millions of J&J Vaccines for South Africa Unfit for Use

In yet another blow to South Africa’s flagging vaccination programme, millions of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine doses meant to be used have been declared unfit for use. This is due to contamination concerns at one of the group’s facilities in the US.

The US Food and Drug Administration said that the doses were not suitable for use. Upon reviewing this decision, the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) said in a statement that it had decided “not to release vaccine produced using the drug substance batches that were not suitable”.

J&J’s Emergent plant was ordered to pause production in April several weeks after it was determined that batches of a substance used to produce the vaccine were cross-contaminated with ingredients from another jab made by Anglo-Swedish pharma giant AstraZeneca. The FDA is yet to allow the factory to reopen.

Acknowledging the setback in South Africa’s vaccination programme, acting Health Minister Mmamoloko Kubayi-Ngubane said Saturday that the batches concerned were stored in a high-security laboratory in Port Elizabeth belonging to drugmaker Aspen. Aspen meanwhile promised that it is ramping up production elsewhere to meet the shortfall, and President Ramaphosa said that he discussed with President Biden the possibility of receiving US vaccine donations.

Along with other countries South Africa, is pushing for a patent waiver on COVID vaccines to allow low cost production of generics.

“If we are to save lives and end the pandemic, we need to expand and diversify manufacturing and get medical products to treat, combat and prevent the pandemic to as many people as quickly as possible,” President Cyril Ramaphosa told the G7 group of wealthy nations meeting in Britain on Sunday. The country needs 31 million doses of the J&J vaccine to help vaccinate its population of 59 million.

South Africa has secured 30 million doses of the highly effective Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, but is a two-dose vaccine which has significant cold chain requirements.

Emergency shipment

SAHPRA stated that there is a new delivery of approximately 300 000 J&J doses “that have been cleared by the US FDA that meet the requirements and will subsequently be released and shipped to South Africa.” The expiry date of these doses have been extended, and will be ready for administration to South African teachers within days.

Vaccinations were already paused in April after reports of rare cases of blood clots. And in February, South Africa rejected over 1.5 million doses of AstraZeneca’s vaccine as it was deemed ineffective. The J&J vaccines were already facing expiry as they had been removed from long term storage.

South Africa has only vaccinated just over 1% of its population but as far as can be ascertained with limited testing in Africa is the hardest hit by COVID on the continent, with over 1.7 million recorded cases.
Source: Eyewitness News

Children Struggle to Recognise Expressions of People with Facemasks

Image by pedro_wroclaw from Pixabay

sA new study has shown that children between the ages of 3 and 5 have difficulty in recognising the emotions of people wearing surgical masks. This collateral effect from this  measure to prevent COVID transmission could influence the correct development of children’s capabilities of social interaction.

To provide guidance for decision-makers, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF compiled a document discouraging exposure to the use of facemasks when dealing with children aged up to five years old. In addition, even for older children, WHO recommends weighing up the benefits of wearing facemasks in against potential negative impacts that could include social and psychological problems, and difficulties in communication and learning.

To investigate such possible negative impacts, a study was carried out by the U-Vip (Unit for Visually Impaired People) research team led by Monica Gori at the IIT- Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Italian Institute of Technology). The findings were published in Frontiers in Psychology.

A research team led by Monica Gori at the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT) focused on the pre-school age group, helping define the measures that can be taken to reduce the impact of the use of surgical masks amongst children. While the wearing of facemasks is not mandatory from 3 to 5 years of age, children are in any case exposed to the use of such preventive measures in various everyday social and educational contexts.

The IIT researchers prepared a quiz containing images of people with and without facemasks, and displayed them on screens to 119 individuals comprising 31 children aged between 3 and 5 years old, 49 children between 6 and 8 years old, and 39 adults between 18 and 30 years old. The participants, independently or with parental assistance in the case of the youngest participants, were asked to try to recognise the faces’ expressions, with and without facemask, conveying different emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear and anger.

When those faces were covered with a facemask, the 3-5 years olds only managed to recognise facial expressions conveying happiness and sadness 40% of the time. The percentages were higher for other age groups: 6-8 years olds had a 55-65% success rate, and 70-80% adults. Generally, however, all age groups displayed some difficulty in interpreting these emotions expressed while the face was partially covered by a facemask. There were better results with other expressions, but the pre-school age children still had the greatest difficulty.

“The experiment was performed in the earliest phases of the 2020 pandemic, and at that time facemasks were still a new experience for everyone,” said Monica Gori. “Children’s brains are highly flexible, and at the moment we are performing tests to ascertain whether children’s understanding of emotions has increased or not.”

“In the study, we worked with children and adults with no forms of disability”, explained Maria Bianca Amadeo, IIT researcher, “of course, these observations are even more important when considering children affected by disabilities.” 
“Indeed”, added co-author Lucia Schiatti, IIT researcher, “for example visual impairment implies difficulties in social interaction. For such individuals in particular, it will be even more necessary to concentrate on possible preventive measures or specific rehabilitation activities”.

Further research is needed over the next few years to assess the actual impact of this mask wearing on the ability of children with and without disabilities to interact. In the meantime, the findings suggest the use of transparent facemasks for all operators in contact with children in the 3-5 year-old age group, or developing training activities to teach children how to recognise emotions by looking at the eyes.

Source: News-Medical.Net

Journal information: Gori, M., et al. (2021) Masking Emotions: Face Masks Impair How We Read Emotions. Frontiers in Psychology. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.669432.

Urgent Vaccine Call as COVID Closes Free State Schools

Photo by Mary Taylor from Pexels


As COVID cases and deaths continue to rise in the Free State, with schools being closed, it is unclear when the province’s teachers will receive their vaccinations.

The deaths of six learners, 75 teachers, and three support staff from COVID have been reported in the Free State since March 2020.

While teachers await their vaccines, COVID still claims lives in the school system – and not just older teachers and staff. Quincy Tsoenyane lost a daughter to COVID-related complications, 18 year-old Nomthandazo Ngcoyi, who was a learner at Lephola Secondary school in Welkom. Nomthandazo was one of 11 learners at the school who tested positive for COVID in May. Tsoenyane, who is a father to two surviving children, said it pains him to know that his daughter got sick at school.

According to the Department of Basic Education (DBE), Nomthandazo developed a cough at school and was tested for COVID along with other learners. On 19 May, she tested positive and was sent home to self-isolate. She died at home six days later.

A rare case

Dr Cloete van Vuuren, an Infectious Disease Specialist in the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Free State, said that Nomthandazo’s death is a rare case as it is uncommon for young people to die from the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

The DBE figures show that since March 2020, the Free State has recorded a total of 2101 positive cases among teachers in schools: 1377 among learners, and 461 among non-teaching staff. Outbreaks of COVID cases have forced several shutdowns of Free State schools.

Holding out for vaccines

As COVID numbers climb in Free State schools, teaching federations and unions are urging that teachers be vaccinated as soon as possible.

From 26 July, children from Grades R to 7 will return to in-person classes. In a media statement, the National Professional Teachers Organisation of South Africa (Naptosa) said that they are pleased to hear that the education sector will receive 500 000 doses of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.

However, the union said they are still in limbo because the doses must still require verification by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and will expire on 28 July.

As of Thursday, there were 591 new COVID cases in Free State, with a new case incidence rate of 17.8 per 100 000 people.

Teachers need to protect themselves and others

Dr Kerrin Begg, Public Health Specialist in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Cape Town reminded teachers that although it is understandable for them to be anxious about the vaccination, each and every person has the responsibility to educate themselves.

“Teachers need to be teaching themselves about the virus just like they do in their everyday line of work of teaching children.

“At the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa, we have produced school guidelines on measures to take to reduce the transmission of COVID in the school environment,” she said. She said that socialising outside of class was where most of the transmission took place, and that learners now no longer adhered to social distancing.

“We remind parents and teachers to remember that protecting themselves is not to be practiced during school hours only, but there are three major focal points of transmission which are before, during, and after school hours.

“Teachers need to understand that the environment of the classroom is very important. Fresh air is better than artificial air, outside is better than inside. Schools also need to continue to promote personal and physical distancing, and hygiene measures daily,” Dr Begg said.

Source: Spotlight

Lifestyle Changes Shown to Reduce Risk of Dementia

Photo by Ketut Subiyanto from Pexels

After almost two decades, a new drug for Alzheimer’s disease has been approved in the US. However, some experts say it doesn’t really work — only treating amyloid plaques which are thought to cause the disease — and worry that it may cost a lot.

The amount of attention around this news reflects the importance of preventing dementia, with its devastating toll on families and patients. But millions of adults could lower their chances of needing such a drug by taking preventative measures.

That’s why a national panel of experts including the University of Michigan’s Deborah Levine, MD, MPH, recently published a guide for primary care providers on this topic as an official Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association.

People dread Alzheimer’s disease, she said. Helping people understand that they can prevent or slow future dementia by taking specific steps now could motivate them to increase their healthy behaviours for a positive effect.

The first step is to recognise that dementia risk is higher among people with seven major modifiable risk factors.

These are: depression, hypertension, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, poor diet, smoking, social isolation, excessive alcohol use, sleep disorders and hearing loss. Addressing each of these factors can, to varying extents, help reduce the risk of developing dementia, a fact backed by decades of research.

The second step is using medication, lifestyle change and other interventions to help patients reduce their dementia risk.

“Dementia is not inevitable,” said Dr Levine, a primary care provider at the University of Michigan Health, part of Michigan Medicine. “Evidence is growing that people can better maintain brain health and prevent dementia by following healthy behaviours and controlling vascular risk factors.”

These strategies can help preserve cognitive function and lower risk for heart attacks and strokes, said Dr Levine, who heads the Cognitive Health Services Research Program and sees patients at the Frankel Cardiovascular Center.

“We need to address the significant disparities that lead women, Black, Hispanic and less-educated Americans to have a much higher risk of dementia,” said Levine, a member of the U-M Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation.

She added that it’s never too late in life to start working on cognitive risk factor control.

“We have no treatments that will halt dementia – so it’s important to protect your brain health.”

Source: University of Michigan

WHO Warns of African Third Wave

COVID cases map. Photo by Giacomo Carra on Unsplash

A surge in COVID cases in many parts of Africa could mean a continental third wave, the World Health Organization warned, posing a great threat for a continent where immunisation drives have been hamstrung by funding shortfalls and production delays for vaccine doses.

The WHO said that over the last week, test positivity had risen in 14 African countries, with eight reporting a surge of over 30% in new cases. Infections are steadily climbing in South Africa, where four of nine provinces are battling a third wave and the positivity rate was 14.2% as of Sunday. Uganda has also seen sharp increases, with hospitals overwhelmed with COVID patients and a lockdown being considered.

Weak compliance with social restrictions, increasing travel and the arrival of winter is behind the rise in cases, the WHO said. Experts also believe that new variants are also driving the numbers up.

Although Africa has reported less than 3 per cent of global coronavirus cases, the WHO said that the continent accounted for 3.7 percent of total deaths. This is likely an underestimate, given the lack of formal reporting for deaths.

“The threat of a third wave in Africa is real and rising,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO regional director for Africa, in a statement. “It’s crucial that we swiftly get vaccines into the arms of Africans at high risk of falling seriously ill and dying of Covid-19.”

While many wealthier countries have vigorous vaccination campaigns and some are on track to fully reopen, many of Africa’s poorer countries face a huge challenge in accessing vaccines.

Out of 1.3 billion people on the continent, only 31 million have received at least one dose, Dr Moeti said, and only seven million are fully vaccinated. Just 1386 people in Kenya have received two doses of a vaccine, out of a population of 50 million.

Countries like Ghana and Rwanda have run through their first deliveries of vaccines through Covax, the global facility working to ensure the equitable distribution of vaccines.

In some countries, vaccine hesitancy has been so high that it even caused stocks of vaccines to expire. Possible contamination in Johnson & Johnson vaccine doses detected at a US manufacturing plant has resulted in yet another delay to South Africa’s immunisation programme.

Meanwhile, fake vaccines and PPE pose another problem; last November a police raid in South Africa found almost 2400 doses of fake vaccine.

The WHO warned that the surge of causes could swamp the limited capacities of healthcare systems. To stave off a full-blown crisis, Dr Moeti urged “countries that have reached a significant vaccination coverage to release doses and keep the most vulnerable Africans out of critical care.”

Only about two per cent of the population has received at least one vaccine dose, compared with the 24 per cent global figure.

“While many countries outside Africa have now vaccinated their high-priority groups and are able to even consider vaccinating their children, African countries are unable to even follow up with second doses for high-risk groups,” said Dr. Moeti. “I’m urging countries that have reached a significant vaccination coverage to release doses and keep the most vulnerable Africans out of critical care.”

Source: UN News

Financial Feasibility of NHI Challenged

Photo by cottonbro from Pexels

Health groups are seeking detailed information on the workings of South Africa’s new National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme, particularly on its financial feasibility.

The Khayelitsha and Klipfonetin health forums said in a presentation to parliament that a proper analysis is necessary to see if South Africa can even afford to fund the NHI. This is a concern that has been echoed by experts. The analysis should also find out if the public trusts the government to be able to deliver an NHI that is fully inclusive of community participation, the forums said.

“There is a view that perhaps we need to be building our public healthcare system as a priority to ensure a successful transition to an NHI Fund,” it said.

The forums also raised concerns around what the NHI will mean for existing healthcare systems – including the future of the country’s medical aids.

“Clarity is needed with respect to how the NHI Bill will address the transition between private medical aids and a universal healthcare system for all.

“The gap between private and public healthcare needs to be bridged and how this is done is important.”

Other critics have also pointed out that the scheme does nothing to address the serious gaps and flaws in South Africa’s healthcare system.

The fate of medical aids

The NHI Bill currently states that when the system is “fully implemented”, services that are paid for by the NHI will not be covered by medical aids.

Discovery Health has said that while it is in general supportive of the structural changes being introduced through the NHI, medical aids should not be limited.

“Our strong view is that limiting the role of medical schemes would be counterproductive to the NHI because there are simply insufficient resources to meet the needs of all South Africans.

“Limiting people from purchasing the medical scheme coverage they seek will seriously curtail the healthcare they expect and demand. It poses the risks of eroding sentiment, and of denuding the country of critically needed skills, and is impacting negatively on local and international investor sentiment and business confidence.”

Crucially, by preventing those who can afford it from using their medical scheme cover, and forcing them into the NHI system, this approach will also have the effect of increasing the burden on the NHI and will drain the very resources that must be used for people in most need, the scheme said. Significantly, there is no indication by government as to how the NHI will be paid for, or whether it can even be afforded, with only mention made to payroll taxes and other revenue streams being tapped.

Source: BusinessTech

Wastewater Analysis Shows KZN in Third Wave

Image source: CDC/Unsplash

Viral load analysis of wastewater suggests that KwaZulu-Natal may already have entered the third wave of COVID infections, according to research by DUT.

The Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, based at DUT, has been monitoring viral loads of wastewater at the central treatment plant in eThekwini since July 2020, and found a clear correlation between clinical cases and viral loads detected in wastewater.

While clinical cases were reported to be on the increase in KZN since April 20 this year, they had found an increase in wastewater viral load some three weeks earlier.

The Institute for Water and Wastewater noted that the peak of the COVID second wave in South Africa occurred in January with an average of 40 000 cases in KwaZulu-Natal.

Over this period, the researchers measured average viral loads of 4.72 log copies per 100 millilitres at the central wastewater treatment plant. However, over the last four weeks, viral loads have averaged 5.57 log copies per 100 millilitres.

This has led the institute to suggest that there are far more cases than have been reported clinically, with a significant presence of asymptomatic individuals.

A report [PDF] on the third wave by the National Institute for Communicable Diseases indicated that there was a seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2, a proxy for previous infection, of 30% to 40% after the third wave. This indicates that COVID infections were already widespread, and lends credence to the institute’s notion of extremely widespread asymptomatic cases. Projections for KZN showed a much lower peak for hospital admissions.

Source: Durban University of Technology

Global Warming Drives a Third of Heat-related Deaths

Photo by Kouji Tsuru on Unsplash

While the COVID pandemic will eventually die down, the health threat from global warming will only increase as long as countries fail to control their emissions. Between 1991 and 2018, more over of all deaths in which heat played a role were attributable to human-induced global warming, according to a groundbreaking new study.

Global warming is impacting human health in a number of ways, from direct effects linked to wildfires and extreme weather, to changes in the spread of vector-borne diseases. One of the most striking ways is in the increase in heat-associated mortality and morbidity. Climate projections predict a rise in average global temperature, with extreme events such as heatwaves adding to future health burden. However, until now no research has been conducted into what extent these impacts have already occurred in recent decades until now. Research to answer these questions was led by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the University of Bern within the Multi-Country Multi-City (MCC) Collaborative Research Network. 

This new study focused on man-made global warming through a ‘detection & attribution’ study that identifies and attributes observed phenomena to weather and climate changes. Specifically, the team examined past weather conditions simulated under scenarios with and without anthropogenic emissions. This enabled the researchers to separate the warming and related health impact linked with human activities from natural trends. Heat-related mortality was defined as the number of deaths attributed to heat, occurring at exposures higher than the optimum temperature for human health, which varies across locations.

Published in Nature Climate Change, the study used data from 732 locations in 43 countries around the world. For the first time, it shows the actual contribution of man-made climate change in increasing mortality risks due to heat.

The study estimates that 37% of all heat-related deaths in the recent summer periods were attributable to the warming of the planet due to human activities. These deaths were highest in hot regions such as Central and South America (up to 76% in Ecuador or Colombia, for example) and South-East Asia (between 48% to 61%).

Estimates also showed the number of deaths from human-induced climate change that occurred in specific cities; 136 additional deaths per year in Santiago de Chile (44.3% of total heat-related deaths in the city), 189 in Athens (26.1%), 172 in Rome (32%), 156 in Tokyo (35.6%), 177 in Madrid (31.9%), 146 in Bangkok (53.4%), 82 in London (33.6%), 141 in New York (44.2%), and 137 in Ho Chi Minh City (48.5%).

The authors said their findings bolster evidence in favour of adopting strong mitigation policies to reduce future warming, and to implement interventions to protect populations from the adverse consequences of heat exposure.

First author Dr Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, from the University of Bern, said: “We expect the proportion of heat-related deaths to continue to grow if we don’t do something about climate change or adapt. So far, the average global temperature has only increased by about 1°C, which is a fraction of what we could face if emissions continue to grow unchecked.”

While on average over a third of heat-related deaths are due to human-induced climate change, there is considerable regional variation. Climate-related heat casualties range from a few dozen to several hundred deaths each year per city, as shown above, depending on the local changes in climate in each area and the vulnerability of its population. Populations living in low and middle-income countries are those most affected yet produce the least global warming emissions.

Senior author Professor Antonio Gasparrini from LSHTM, and coordinator of the MCC Network, said: “This is the largest detection & attribution study on current health risks of climate change. The message is clear: climate change will not just have devastating impacts in the future, but every continent is already experiencing the dire consequences of human activities on our planet. We must act now.”

The authors acknowledge limitations of the study include a lack of empirical data from certain regions such as Africa.

Source: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Journal information: Vicedo-Cabrera, A.M., et al. (2021) The burden of heat-related mortality attributable to recent human-induced climate change. Nature Climate Change. doi.org/10.1038/s41558-021-01058-x.